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The Role of Radiolabeled PET/CT in the Diagnosis and Characterization of Prostate Cancer
*President, MedCom Consultants, Inc, Potomac MD
Address correspondence to: Steven Marks, MedCom Consultants Inc, 1311 Fallsmead Way, Potomac MD 20854. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Disclosure statement: Steven Marks reports having no financial or advisory relationship with any corporate, medical, or political organization doing work related to this paper or other business activity at MedCom Consultants, Inc.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous malignancy among Americans, with an incidence of more than 160,000 and a prevalence approaching 3 million. Each year about 30,000 American males die because of PCa, while worldwide mortality now approaches 260,000 annually. The natural history of PCa is heterogeneous, as the majority of lesions remain intraprostatic and indolent. However, nearly 30% of all tumors are rapidly progressive, metastatic, and highly resistant to treatment. As the vast majority of tumors are not clinically meaningful, the usefulness of screening and early detection is controversial. The standard diagnostic and staging methodology, transrectal ultrasonography-guided systemic biopsy, does not provide a meaningful biologic characterization of PCa, particularly when the disease has metastasized. Although functional magnetic resonance imaging is the most efficacious modality for evaluating primary PCa, its accuracy in staging regional and metastatic disease is low. Radiolabeled positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging, by contrast, offers a more reliable description of the molecular characteristics of the disease, as well as a clearer depiction of biochemical recurrence and metastases to the lymph nodes and bone. This review will explore the role of functional PET/CT and the performance of the most important tracers now in clinical and research use for the detection and characterization of primary disease, PCa recurrence following radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy, and metastases to the lymph nodes and bone.
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